The majority areas of Shanghai are located the broad and level low and level Yangtze River deltaic plain, the network of rivers and lakes are densely covered, the north west sees the small massif here and there, average altitude above sea level is approximately 4 meters. Within the boundaries commands the Chinese third Oshima Chongming island as well as Changxing, Hnegsha and so on islands, and the Huangpu River and its the branch Suzhou rivers pass through the urban district.
>> The topography
Within the boundaries of Shanghai has the minority knoll sierra besides the north west, all for the broad and level low and level plain, is one part of Yangtze River delta silting alluvial plain, the average altitude above sea level is about 4 meters. The geologic structure is a part of the ancient landmass (Yang Zizhun the platform). In the remote geologic history age, once many times experienced the land sea vicissitudes great change. From cainozoic era quaternary period time, under the river current sea tide together function, the silt which Yangtze River brings piles up unceasingly, forms the model of the river mouth delta silting alluviation plain. The geological foundation quite is stable. Nearly 500 years, have occurred only several times of big earthquake within the boundaries, but because the center of origin is shallow, therefore has the feeling that the area is large. The topography appear the shape of high east and the low west. May divide into three terrains units according to the landform origin and the ground elevation, it is Dieyuan high ground, the Dingliu lowly ground and the sandbar at the river mouth. The area of east Pudong Qin Gongtang calls the Binhai plain, the elevation is between 4 ~ 5 meters. The both banks area of Huangpu River calls the Dieyuan high ground, the elevation is about 4 meters. The Dingliu lowland in west area of Dianshanhu Lake is the lowest land, elevation is only 2 ~ 3 meters. The topography likes the shape of half small dish which inclines slightly to Tai Lake. The river mouth sandbar mainly included Chongming, Changxing, the Hnwgsha three islands and other sandbar. just leaves the water surface. Because within the boundaries the topography is low, whenever the flood season and the high tide of Sea and rivers, specially at the same time of the big spring tide and the typhoon rainstorm makes a sneak attack, easily overflows the evil of Sea and rivers, must implement the flood prevention and the hydraulic engineering.
>> The climate
The climate is the subtropics monsoon climate, warm and moist, illumination is sufficient, the precipitation is abundant, the four seasons are distinct. Annual mean temperature istyle16.5 ℃. The coldest is January in winter, the monthly average temperature is 3.3 ℃, compares the same latitude interior is to be temperate; The hottest month is July in summer, the monthly average temperature is 27.8 ℃, also was burning hot inferior to the same latitude interior. The sunshine condition is sufficient, year sunshine time is about 2,000 hours. Whole year frost-free period is 241 days, daily average temperature above 10 ℃ thermophilic crops vegetal period is total 233 days. The rainfall is abundant, the average annual rainfall is 1,200 millimeters, the rainy day reaches much 132 day. Te rain season is divided even. The summer is account 40.1percent, while the winter is account 13.0%, some 70% rainfall amount concentrate approximately in the month of 4 ~ 9. The rainfall intensity are many by the center light rain primarily, it is good for the growing of the crops. Spring begins in March; Summer starts from the plum rains, after enters the midsummer, the high temperature and dry, forms the hot summer crop damage; Autumn wind is cool and pleasant, some times has the continuous rain; The winter is sunny and few rain, the north cold air intermittently goes south, has the cold wave attack. Some times.
>> The hydrology water resources
The main rivers and the lake have the Yangtze River mouth section, the Huangpu River, Wusong river (Suzhou River) and Dianshanhu Lake and so on. The Changjiang river pass through the north of city, after admits the Huangpu River, east flows to the sea. The mouth of river is appeared the horn to stretch to outside, The widest place is amounts to 80 kilometers. The Huangpu River is origin from the peak of Dianshanhu Lake, goes upstream connects Tai Lake, passes through the Shanghai urban district, The width flowing through the urban district river is 300-770 meter, the average is 360 meters. The Huangpu River is width and the water is deep, is not frozen all the year, is important highway of Shanghai. Go into the Yangtze River in Wu Song mouth, the span is 113.4 kilometers. The section flows through the urban district is approximately 39 kilometers, the general width is 500 meters, The width amount to 800 meters approximately in the Wusong mouth, the river depth is 5 ~ 15 meters, The deepest is about 20 meters, has the opening the navigation, anchors, the water supply, directs to fill, to drain waterlogged land, the tour and so on the many kinds of functions. The Wusong river is origin from the Tai Lake Guajing mouth, the span is 125 kilometers, flows through the boundaries of Shanghai is 54 kilometers, at the Huangpu park of center city, go into the Huangpu River, is another important inland river route of Shanghai. Once had the history of “Deep and broad may the enemy thousand water's edges”, latter because the water is bent and the river bed is shallow, clogs with silt difficultly to be sparse, becomes a branch of Huangpu River. The Dianshanhu Lake is the biggest fresh water lake in suburbs, the area is 66 square kilometers, the water quality is good. The boundary domestic waters resources total quantity is rich, the average per person water resources total quantity surpasses above 1 time of the national average level.
>> The Soil
Bbecause the topography is low and level, the river, the lake, the sea water level are high, The ground water burying level is very shallow, the land is at the condition of submerges highly.
The soil is primarily by soaks diving and leaching - deposition Shuicheng and half Shuicheng series soil. The former is mainly the blue purple ink paste which origins for the bog earth, the centralism distributes in the western low-lying area; Latter is mainly the yellow soil, the ditch, the putty, clamps the slag, the tide putty and the slag and the Binhai pickling earth and so on which origins for the meadow soil, its distribution is primarily by eastern part Dieyuan high ground and river mouth sandbar area. Each kind of soil layer is deep, and the structure is good. Except the blue purple ink paste, the ditch argillaceous sticks slightly heavily outside, other soil type is common quality, the ploughs the nature is bad. The existing cultivated area is5 million Chinese acres, above 80% is the high production curing soil. The coastal shallow seas and tidelands silts unceasingly, from the end of the 50's, has enclosed tideland for cultivation the beach is approximately 60,000 hectares, Chongming island encloses tideland for cultivation 5 times, increases the fertile farmland more than 600,000 Chinese acres. At present, outside the Changjiang delta has deposited the nearly 10,000 square kilometers submarine deltas, area the Nanhui mouth the beach extends to East China by speeds of 46 meters Sea every year.
>> The biology
The the natural vegetation biology within the boundaries remaining are not many, the major part is the manual cultivation crops and the forest. The natural xylophyte community, only distributes in the big gold mountain island and the Sheshan local area and so on, the natural herb community distributes in the sandbar, the beach and the port branch. The cultivation crops altogether have more than 100 types, nearly ten thousand varieties. The vegetables reach 400 many kinds, occupies crown of the national, the fruits and melons and watches the flowers and plants variety also to be many. Manual cultivation trees, mainly distribute in the suburban counties tree farm, both sides the urban district park and the path. The animal resources are mainly the poultry variety, the wild animal type has been extremely scarce. The aquatic resource is rich, altogether has fish 177 to be 226 kinds, fresh water fishes are 171 kinds, The sea fishes are 55 kinds.
>> The mine resourse
Within the boundaries of the minerals lacks the metal mineral resource, the construction stone material are also very scarcely, The energy minerals on land are similarly deficient. Since the 70's have offshore started in offshore to seek the oil gas resources, obtain the industry crude oil and the natural gas in the multi- mouths well drilling. According to the preliminary estimate, the East China Sea continental shelf oil gas resources reserves has 6 billion tons approximately, is our country offshore sea area biggest oil and gas bearing basin. Neighbor south Yellow Sea, process investigation and exploration, also discovered the oil gas resources, the estimate have 290 million tons reserves. In the East China Sea water chemistry resources are rich, under Changjiang delta epicontinental sea, also discovered some mineral unusual areas, have the zircon, the titanium iron sand, the garnet, the rutile and so on the important mineral.